I have always just assumed that they work out the visa fees based on the entire immigration system as a whole and charge different applicants an amount that they can probably afford. I don't think they spent $3995 processing my application. I think a significant portion of that went to supplement other types of migration - covering the costs of processing refugees, for example. I actually have no real idea whether or not this is the case but I sort of like that idea. It seems fair that as an immigrant who generates enough income to save $3995 that I should be expected to offset the cost for immigrants who may have risked their lives and spent their life savings to travel here from war torn or impoverished countries.